T. Bernard Kinane, M.D.

Specialty: Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine

Massachusetts General Hospital for Children

WAC 7- 707
15 Parkman Street
Boston, MA 02114


The following is a list of recent publications for which this Partners Asthma Center physician has been cited as an author in PubMed databases. Study abstracts have been provided for your convenience.

Dalvin, S., M. A. Anselmo, et al. (2003). "Expression of Netrin-1 and its two receptors DCC and UNC5H2 in the developing mouse lung." Gene Expr Patterns 3(3): 279-83.

The ligand Netrin-1 and its receptors DCC and UNC5H2 are critical for the regulation of neuronal migration in nervous system development. Here we demonstrate expression of these molecules in lung development. The mRNA expression profiles of Netrin-1, DCC and UNC5H2 are developmentally regulated during embryonic mouse lung formation. Netrin-1 shows a bimodal expression pattern with elevated mRNA levels early followed by a second peak in late gestation. Peak expression of DCC occurs early in development whereas expression of UNC5H2 peaks late in development. We also demonstrate localization of Netrin-1, DCC and UNC5H2 during the stages of lung development. We present evidence that these proteins are modulated spatially in the mesenchyme and epithelium during lung organogenesis.

Prodhan, P. and T. B. Kinane (2002). "Developmental paradigms in terminal lung development." Bioessays 24(11): 1052-9.

Late lung development comprises the formation of the terminal sac followed by the subdivision of the terminal sac by septa into alveoli and results in the formation of the gas-exchange surface of the lung. This developmentally regulated process involves a complex epithelium-mesenchyme interaction via evolutionarily conserved molecular signaling pathways. In addition, there is a continuous process of vascular growth and development. Currently there are large gaps in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the gas-exchange surface. In this review, we attempt to integrate and reconcile the morphologic features in late lung development with what is known about the molecular basis for these processes. We describe the formation of the terminal sac and the subsequent formation of the septa, which divide the terminal sac into alveoli, in terms of the classically described developmental stages of induction, morphogenesis and differentiation. We believe that evolutionarily conserved pathways regulate this process and that morphogen gradients are likely to be a central mechanism. In addition, we highlight the importance of the molecular mechanisms involved in the simultaneous development of the vascular bed and its importance in the late development of the lungs.

Prodhan, P., N. N. Noviski, et al. (2002). "Salmeterol for the prevention of high-altitude pulmonary edema." N Engl J Med 347(16): 1282-5; author reply 1282-5.

Komatsuzaki, K., S. Dalvin, et al. (2002). "Modulation of G(ialpha(2)) signaling by the axonal guidance molecule UNC5H2." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297(4): 898-905.

The G protein, G(ialpha(2)), regulates a number of cellular functions including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The transduction of signal depends on the ability of the alpha subunit to cycle between a GDP bound and an active GTP bound state capable of interacting with intracellular enzymes. Here, we now report the novel interaction of gip2 (constitutively activated G(ialpha(2))) with the cytoplasmic domain of UNC5H2. Like G(ialpha(2)), we found that UNC5H2 is widely expressed particularly in cells which migrate. UNC5H2 binds G(ialpha(2)) when it is charged with GTP. The interaction of G(ialpha(2)) and UNC5H2 liberated adenylyl cyclase from G(ialpha(2)) inhibition. Thus, by sequestering the alpha subunit, UNC5H2 is a novel inhibitor of G(ialpha(2)) thereby increasing intracellular cAMP levels. The expression of UNC5H2 in the brain and immune system suggests that this novel inhibitor of G protein signaling may have broad significance for axonal guidance and chemotaxis.

Kling, D. E., H. K. Lorenzo, et al. (2002). "MEK-1/2 inhibition reduces branching morphogenesis and causes mesenchymal cell apoptosis in fetal rat lungs." Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 282(3): L370-8.

The roles of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK-1/2) in fetal lung development have not been extensively characterized. To determine if ERK-1/2 signaling plays a role in fetal lung branching morphogenesis, U-0126, an inhibitor of the upstream kinase MAP ERK kinase (MEK), was added to fetal lung explants in vitro. Morphometry as measured by branching, area, perimeter, and complexity were significantly reduced in U-0126-treated lungs. At the same time, U-0126 treatment reduced ERK-1/2, slightly increased p38 kinase, but did not change c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activities, indicating that U-0126 specifically inhibited the ERK-1/2 enzymes. These changes were associated with increased apoptosis as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and immunofluorescent labeling of anti-active caspase-3 in the mesenchyme of explants after U-0126 treatment compared with the control. Mitosis characterized by immunolocalization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was found predominantly in the epithelium and was reduced in U-0126-treated explants. Thus U-0126 causes specific inhibition of ERK-1/2 signaling, diminished branching morphogenesis, characterized by increased mesenchymal apoptosis, and decreased epithelial proliferation in fetal lung explants.

Fisher, J. C., D. E. Kling, et al. (2002). "Oxidation-reduction (redox) controls fetal hypoplastic lung growth." J Surg Res 106(2): 287-91.

INTRODUCTION: The persistent morbidity and mortality of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are largely due to associated pulmonary hypoplasia. We have shown previously that three antioxidants (vitamin C, glutathione, and vitamin E) could accelerate the growth of fetal hypoplastic lungs grown in culture. We hypothesize that this occurs via a reductant mechanism. METHODS: Timed-pregnant rats were gavage-fed nitrofen (100 mg) on day 9.5 of gestation (term = day 22). Fetal lungs were harvested on day 13.5 and placed in organ culture containing serum-free BGJb medium with antibiotics. After randomization, the lung organ cultures were divided into a control group (n = 31) and an experimental group that received the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 100 microM, n = 31). The fetal lung organ cultures were grown for 4 days at 37 degrees C with 5% CO(2). Computer-assisted digital tracings of the airways were performed daily on live, unstained specimens, and lung bud count, perimeter, and area were measured. After 4 days, lungs were pooled, homogenized, and assayed for reduced and oxidized glutathione, normalized to protein, as an estimate of the tissue redox potential. Data were expressed as means +/- SEM, and statistical comparisons were performed using Student's unpaired t test, with P < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Area, perimeter, lung bud count, and complexity (as measured by the perimeter/square root of area) were all significantly increased with NAC treatment from day 2 onward. Reduced glutathione levels were significantly increased following NAC administration (67.1 +/- 5.8 versus 37.5 +/- 4.2 micromol/mg, P = 0.0004). The ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was 2.23. CONCLUSIONS: N-Acetylcysteine stimulates nitrofen-induced hypoplastic fetal lung growth in organ culture and increases the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. These data support the concept that oxidation-reduction (redox) may be an important control mechanism for fetal lung growth.

Komatsuzaki, K., K. Terashita, et al. (2001). "Somatostatin type V receptor activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases via Galpha(12) family G proteins." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289(5): 1211-7.

Somatostatin is a neurotransmitter with diverse effects including anti-proliferation in a wide range of normal and neoplastic cells, and occasionally growth stimulatory and neurotrophic actions. Stress-activated protein kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) can also induce growth arrest and occasionally growth stimulation. However, the relationship between somatostatin and SAPK/JNK is less clear. Here we report that the binding of somatostatin to the somatostatin receptor type V (SSTR5) upregulates SAPK/JNK activity. We also show that this activation is mediated by Galpha(12) and Galpha(13). This study demonstrates that SSTR5 is the heptahelical receptor that activates SAPK/JNK via the G(12) family G proteins.

Kling, D. E., V. Narra, et al. (2001). "Decreased mitogen activated protein kinase activities in congenital diaphragmatic hernia-associated pulmonary hypoplasia." J Pediatr Surg 36(10): 1490-6.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:The mechanisms that cause pulmonary hypoplasia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) currently are unknown. The authors proposed that the reduced size and immaturity of these lungs may be associated with differences in the levels of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation (extracellular signal regulated protein kinases, ERK-1 and -2). METHODS: ERK-1 activities were measured using immune-complex kinase assays on fetal whole-lung lysates obtained from both nitrofen and olive oil-treated (control) pregnant rats. In addition, ERK-1 and ERK-2 functional activities were estimated by semiquantitative Western blot analysis, using an antibody specific for the diphosphorylated (dp-ERK, activated) forms of the enzymes. RESULTS: ERK-1 activities, measured using immune-complex kinase assays, were reduced in CDH lungs compared with olive oil-treated controls (P <.02). In addition, dp-ERK-1 and dp-ERK-2 levels were found to be reduced in CDH lungs compared with controls (dp-ERK-1, P =.003; dp-ERK-2, P =.04), whereas ERK-1 and ERK-2 protein levels were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The lower values of ERK-1 activity and reduced amounts of dp-ERK-1 and dp-ERK-2 in lung tissue from CDH animals, suggests that ERK-1 and ERK-2 activities are reduced in pulmonary hypoplasia associated with CDH. The observed reduction in ERK-1 and ERK-2 activities implicates attenuated cell signaling upstream of the ERK-1 and -2 enzymes.

Rajagopal, J. and T. B. Kinane (2000). "Is there more to lung development than steroids and surfactant?" Pediatrics 106(5): 1103-4.

Lader, A. S., A. G. Prat, et al. (2000). "Increased circulating levels of plasma ATP in cystic fibrosis patients." Clin Physiol 20(5): 348-53.

Recent studies have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter whose mutations are responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), permeates ATP. However, little information is available concerning extracellular ATP concentrations in CF patients. Thus, the goal of this preliminary study was to determine the circulating levels of plasma ATP in CF patients. Circulating levels of plasma ATP were determined by the luciferin-luciferase assay in both CF patients and healthy volunteer control subjects. The two groups were compared using an analysis of variance. CF genotype and age, which ranged from 7 to 56 years, were also used to compare data by single-blind analysis. With comparable sample numbers, CF patients had statistically higher levels of circulating ATP (34%, P<0.01) when compared by analysis of covariance with the age of the subjects as the cofactor. The CF patients bearing the DeltaF508 genotype had a 54% (n=33, P<0.01) higher plasma ATP concentration compared to controls, while patients bearing other CF genotypes were similar to controls (n=10, P<0.4). We conclude that CF patients have higher circulating levels of ATP when compared to controls. Increased levels of plasma ATP, which is an important autocrine/paracrine hormone in many cell types, may be associated with chronic manifestations of the disease.

Kinane, T. B., K. Komatsuzaki, et al. (1999). "Regulation of the G protein Galphai2 by growth and development in fetal airway epithelium." Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 20(1): 35-42.

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins transduce a wide variety of receptor-mediated signals to effectors that are involved in numerous cellular functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation. Thrombin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide mediate their effects via G protein-coupled receptors to regulate lung growth and development. The growth responses of these ligands are likely to be mediated via the Gi subfamily of G proteins, specifically via Galphai2. We hypothesized that Galphai2 is expressed in the lung during ontogeny in a growth-dependent manner, and that Galphai2 regulates cell growth. We demonstrate that Galphai2 is present in the developing lung of Sprague-Dawley rats, and that its expression is enhanced between embryonic Day 19 and postnatal Day 2. The strongest expression occurs in the fetal airway epithelium, and this expression in fetal airway cells is growth-dependent. Galphai2 is localized to the plasma membrane, a location consistent with interaction with growth factor receptors. Inhibition of Gi-family signal transduction by pertussis toxin (10 ng/ml) inhibits DNA synthesis in embryonic Day 19 in fetal airway epithelium. Galphai2 is likely to be a key mediator of growth signals in the developing lung.

Farokhzad, O. C., G. D. Sagar, et al. (1999). "Protein kinase C activation downregulates the expression and function of the basolateral Na+/K+/2Cl(-) cotransporter." J Cell Physiol 181(3): 489-98.

The basolateral Na+/K+/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) has been shown to be an independent regulatory site for electrogenic Cl(-) secretion. The proinflammatory phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which activates protein kinase C (PKC), inhibits basal and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated NKCC1 activity in T84 intestinal epithelial cells and decreases the steady state levels of NKCC1 mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The levels of NKCC1 protein also fall in accordance with the NKCC1 mRNA transcript and these levels are unaffected by 4alpha-phorbol, which does not activate PKC. Inhibition of maximal (cAMP-stimulated) NKCC1 functional activity by PMA was first detected by 1 h, whereas decreases in the steady state levels of NKCC1 mRNA were not detectable until 4 h. NKCC1 mRNA expression recovers toward control levels with extended treatment of cells with PMA suggesting that the PMA effects on NKCC1 expression are mediated through activation of PKC. Although NKCC1 mRNA and protein levels return to control values after extended PMA exposure, NKCC1 functional activity does not recover. Immunofluorescence imaging suggest that the absence of functional recovery is due to failure of newly synthesized NKKC1 protein to reach the cell surface. We conclude that NKCC1 has the capacity to be regulated at the level of de novo expression by PKC, although decreased NKCC1 expression alone cannot account for either early or late loss of NKCC1 function.

Kinane, T. B., I. Kang, et al. (1997). "G alpha(i-2) mediates renal LLC-PK1 growth by a Raf-independent activation of p42/p44 MAP kinase." Am J Physiol 272(2 Pt 2): F273-82.

The protooncogene G alpha(i-2) plays a pivotal role in signaling pathways that control renal cell growth and differentiation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are potential downstream effectors for G alpha(i-2) in these pathways. In predifferentiated LLC-PK1 renal cells, the temporal maximal expression of G alpha(i-2) coincided with maximal activation of MAPK(p42/p44). By contrast, pertussis toxin treatment of these cells inhibited cell growth and reduced MAPK(p42/p44) activity by 30%. These findings reflected upstream activation of MAPK kinase (MEK1), as transient transfection of cells with a plasmid encoding a constitutively active form of MEK1 increased MAPK(p42/p44) activity and cell growth, whereas treatment with PD-098059, an inhibitor of MEK1 activity, reduced MAPK(p42/p44) activity and cell growth. Expression of a guanosinetriphosphatase (GTPase)-deficient G alpha(i-2) in these cells increased MAPK(p42/p44) activity and correspondingly reduced cell doubling time from 24 to 10 h without altering the activity of Raf-1 or c-Jun/stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs). By contrast, expression of a GTPase-deficient G alpha(i-3) in these cells reduced both their cell doubling time by 30% and MAPK(p42/p44) activity by 60%. As the known MEKK isoforms (MEKK1, -2, and -3) can also activate SAPKs, these findings suggest the GTP-charged G alpha(i-2) subunit transduces growth signals in renal cells via activation of MAPK(p42/p44) and that such activation may be linked to pathways containing novel MEKK isoforms that preferentially activate MEKs.

Burton, M. D., A. Kawashima, et al. (1997). "RET proto-oncogene is important for the development of respiratory CO2 sensitivity." J Auton Nerv Syst 63(3): 137-43.

Brain stem muscarinic cholinergic pathways are important in respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2) chemosensitivity. Defects in the muscarinic system have been reported in children with congenital/developmental disorders of respiratory control such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). This early onset of disease suggests a possible genetic basis. The muscarinic system is part of the autonomic nervous system which develops from the neural crest. Ret proto-oncogene is important for this development. Thus, a potential role for ret in the development of respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity was considered. Using plethysmography, we assessed the ventilatory response to inhaled CO2 in the unanesthetized offsprings of ret +/- mice. Fractional increases in minute ventilation during hypercapnia relative to isocapnia were 5.1 +/- 3.2, 3.0 +/- 1.6 and 1.4 +/- 0.8 for the ret +/+, ret +/- and ret +/- mice, respectively. The ret knockout mice have a depressed ventilatory response to inhaled CO2. Therefore, the ret gene is an important factor in the pathway of neuronal development which allow respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity.

Yamatsuji, T., T. Matsui, et al. (1996). "G protein-mediated neuronal DNA fragmentation induced by familial Alzheimer's disease-associated mutants of APP." Science 272(5266): 1349-52.

Missense mutations in the 695-amino acid form of the amyloid precursor protein (APP695) cosegregate with disease phenotype in families with dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. These mutations convert valine at position 642 to isoleucine, phenylalanine, or glycine. Expression of these mutant proteins, but not of normal APP695, was shown to induce nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in neuronal cells. Induction of DNA fragmentation required the cytoplasmic domain of the mutants and appeared to be mediated by heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins (G proteins).

Bramson, R. T., R. Cleveland, et al. (1996). "Radiographic appearance of follicular bronchitis in children." AJR Am J Roentgenol 166(6): 1447-50.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to present the first radiographic description of a newly described disease in children, follicular bronchitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical history and radiographs of eight children with biopsy evidence of follicular bronchitis. RESULTS: All eight infants had findings on initial radiographs that were consistent with viral inflammatory disease. The clinical features of follicular bronchitis started by 6-8 weeks old and peaked between about 2 and 3 years old. After several months of the disease, the infants' radiographs showed a more obvious interstitial pattern. When these children were approximately 3 years old, the radiographic findings began to return to normal. Four children have been followed up for at least 8 years. By that age, the clinical symptoms of respiratory disease have disappeared. All four children tested after they were 8 years old had abnormal results of pulmonary function tests. CONCLUSION: The combination of unique clinical features associated with the radiographic appearances we describe should allow radiologists to suggest the diagnosis of follicular bronchitis.

Silverman, E. S., B. T. Thompson, et al. (1995). "Na+/H+ exchange in pulmonary artery smooth muscle from spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats." Am J Physiol 269(5 Pt 1): L673-80.

Na+/H+ exchanger regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) may play a key permissive role in the mitogen-induced vascular smooth muscle cell growth that occurs in systemic and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have increased Na+/H+ exchange in systemic vessels as well as greater systemic vascular remodeling compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). In contrast to WKY, SHR demonstrate only mild pulmonary hypertension and no increased remodeling to hypoxia compared with WKY. We therefore wondered whether Na+/H+ exchange in pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PASM) of SHR might not be elevated compared with WKY. Baseline pHi, Vmax, pK0.5, and Hill coefficient were compared in 12- to 14-wk-old SHR and WKY PASM and aortic smooth muscle (AoSM) segments by ratio fluorescence spectroscopy. The Vmax, pK0.5, and Hill coefficient were significantly increased in SHR AoSM segments compared with WKY AoSM segments (53, 0.55, and 53%, respectively; P < 0.05). There were no differences in these values between SHR and WKY PASM segments, unlike the AoSM segments. We conclude that the Na+/H+ exchanger activity in PASM in the SHR is the same as in the WKY, which is in contrast to systemic arteries where Na+/H+ exchange is greater in the SHR.

Kinane, T. B., J. D. Finder, et al. (1995). "LLC-PK1 cell growth is repressed by WT1 inhibition of G-protein alpha i-2 protooncogene transcription." J Biol Chem 270(51): 30760-4.

The temporal expression of the early growth response gene (EGR-1) is one molecular mechanism for both maximal activation of the G alpha i-2 gene and accelerated growth in mitotically active predifferentiated LLC-PK1 renal cells. These events are dependent on an enhancer area in the 5'-flanking region of the G alpha i-2 gene that contains an EGR-1 motif (5'-CGCCCCCGC-3'). However, acquisition of the polarized phenotype in LLC-PK1 cells is accompanied by loss of EGR-1 expression and occupancy of the EGR-1 site by nuclear binding proteins other than EGR-1. We now demonstrate that one of these binding proteins is the Wilms' tumor suppressor (WT1). Furthermore, the temporal expression of WT1 in LLC-PK1 cells acquiring the polarized phenotype represses both G alpha i-2 gene activation and growth in these cells. These findings suggest the existence of differentiation-induced pathways in LLC-PK1 cells that alternatively abrogates EGR-1 and promotes WT1 gene expression, thereby modulating a target protooncogene G alpha i-2 that is participatory for growth and differentiation in renal cells. These studies emphasize the usefulness of the LLC-PK1 renal cell as a model to elucidate normal programs of genetic differentiation in which WT1 participates.

Kinane, T. B., J. D. Finder, et al. (1994). "Growth of LLC-PK1 renal cells is mediated by EGR-1 up-regulation of G protein alpha i-2 protooncogene transcription." J Biol Chem 269(44): 27503-9.

The early growth response zinc finger transcription factor (EGR-1) and the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein encoded by the protooncogene G alpha i-2 each play pivotal roles in signaling pathways that control cell growth and differentiation. The G alpha i-2 gene 5'-flanking region contains a putative binding site (5'-CGCCCCCGC-3') for EGR-1 that may allow it to be a target gene for EGR-1 mitogenic signaling. We now demonstrate in LLC-PK1 renal cells the temporal expression of EGR-1 protein by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry coincident with the maximal activation of the G alpha i-2 gene during cell growth. To determine whether G alpha i-2 or EGR-1 influence epithelial cell growth, LLC-PK1 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids encoding cDNAs for G alpha i-2 (pRSV G alpha i-2) or EGR-1 (pRSV EGR-1) driven by a viral Rous sarcoma promoter enhancer to overexpress each protein. Following transfection, cell growth was examined in media containing either 10 or 0.1% fetal bovine serum. Only cells transfected with plasmids encoding G alpha i-2 and EGR-1 had growth rates greater than that of serum replete cohorts. To assess whether EGR-1 was contributing to the transcriptional activation of the G alpha i-2 gene, cells were cotransfected with pRSV EGR-1 and plasmids encoding firefly luciferase reporter genes fused to 5'-flanking areas of the G alpha i-2 gene containing either the EGR-1 binding site or a mutated EGR-1 binding site (5'-AAAAACCGC-3'). A 320% enhancement of G alpha i-2 transcription was found only in LLC-PK1 cells following their transfection with plasmids that contained both the EGR-1 binding site and overexpressed EGR-1 protein. Utilizing mobility shift assays, which compared nuclear extracts from cells before and after cell polarization, a probe containing the EGR-1 motif detected induced nuclear protein complexes during transcriptional activation of the G alpha i-2 gene. An anti-EGR-1 antibody specifically retarded the mobility of the induced nuclear complexes, indicating that the EGR-1 protein was a component of these complexes. These data provide direct evidence for a novel mitogenic signaling pathway coupling proximal signaling events that activate EGR-1 gene expression to a target protooncogene G alpha i-2 that is participatory for growth and differentiation in renal cells.

Kang, I., D. G. Lindquist, et al. (1994). "Isolation and characterization of the promoter of the human GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit gene." J Neurochem 62(4): 1643-6.

The GABAA receptor, as assessed by ligand binding and chloride flux measurement in vivo and in vitro, is down-regulated in response to chronic benzodiazepine exposure. The mRNA levels of the alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the receptor are also reduced. We have isolated the promoter of the gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the GABAA receptor to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of its expression. A DNA segment 650 bp long has been isolated that includes 151 bp of untranslated 5' end of the cDNA sequence and 500 bp of potential promoter-enhancer region. The transcriptional activity of this DNA segment linked to the firefly luciferase gene showed a strong orientation specificity. The promoter activity was localized to a 60-bp segment by deletion mapping. Mobility shift binding assay results suggest that this segment may interact with one or more factors in HeLa cell nuclear extracts to form a transcriptional complex. Primary cultures of embryonic chick cortical cells transfected with the promoter-luciferase construct were treated chronically with lorazepam. Transcriptional activity of this promoter construct was strongly repressed by chronic administration of lorazepam.

Kinane, T. B., C. Shang, et al. (1993). "cAMP regulates G-protein alpha i-2 subunit gene transcription in polarized LLC-PK1 cells by induction of a CCAAT box nuclear binding factor." J Biol Chem 268(33): 24669-76.

Heterotrimeric G-proteins function as signal transducers for a variety of hormone-coupled enzyme systems in eukaryotic cells. In LLC-PK1 renal cells, vasopressin-stimulated adenylylcyclase activity is regulated in part, by the counterbalancing activity of stimulatory G-proteins (Gs) and inhibitory pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins (Gi). Two Gi genes encoding the Gi isoforms G alpha i-2 and G alpha i-3 are expressed in LLC-PK1 cells. In polarized cells, these isoforms are topographically segregated to different membranes, which allows for the selective inhibition of adenylylcyclase by G alpha i-2. The genes encoding these isoforms are similarly regulated in these cells during growth and differentiation but differ in response to steroid hormone signals (Holtzman, E.J., Kinane, T.B., West, K., Soper, B.W., Karga, H., Ausiello, D.A., and Ercolani, L. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 3964-3975). We now demonstrate after stimulating polarized LLC-PK1 cells with forskolin, which raises intracellular cAMP levels 50-fold, G alpha i-2 but not G alpha i-3 protein is increased 3-fold at 12 h and remains elevated above control values by 24 h. In cells stably transfected with G alpha i-2 or G alpha i-3 gene 5'-flanking sequences fused to firefly luciferase cDNA reporter gene, forskolin treatment increased G alpha i-2 transcription 3-fold but inhibited G alpha i-3 transcription by 50% at 12 h. In vivo footprinting of forskolin-treated cells was performed to examine the molecular basis for activation of the G alpha i-2 gene. Protected guanosines were identified in a 135-base pair (bp) area previously associated with enhancer activity of this gene in non-polarized cells. This DNA segment did not contain the classical cAMP response element 5'-TGACGTCA-3'. Utilizing the 135-bp DNA segment as a probe in mobility shift assays, which compared nuclear extracts from cells before and after forskolin treatment, an induced nuclear protein complex was identified. Following systematic reduction and mutation of this DNA segment, a "CCAAT" box motif was identified that bound the induced nuclear protein complex during forskolin-induced G alpha i-2 gene transcriptional activation. Induction of this nuclear protein complex was prevented in forskolin-treated cells by cycloheximide. To demonstrate functional activity of the CCAAT box motif, cells were transiently transfected with plasmids encoding either the minimal 135-bp segment or a multimerized CCAAT box segment fused to a Rous sarcoma minimal promoter/firefly luciferase reporter gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Holtzman, E. J., T. B. Kinane, et al. (1993). "Transcriptional regulation of G-protein alpha i subunit genes in LLC-PK1 renal cells and characterization of the porcine G alpha 1-3 gene promoter." J Biol Chem 268(6): 3964-75.

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) function as signal transducers for a variety of hormone-coupled enzyme and ion transport systems in eukaryotic cells. The expression of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins (Gi) which couple their cognate receptors and effectors are regulated by cell cycle-dependent events in porcine LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. G alpha i-2 and G alpha i-3 isoforms are detected in these cells, and like G alpha i-2 (Holtzman, E. J., Soper, B. W., Stow, L. L., Ausiello, D. A., and Ercolani, L. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 1763-1771), we now demonstrate that G alpha i-3 mRNA and protein is coordinately expressed in these cells during differentiation. To gain further insights into these events, the porcine G alpha i-3 gene minimal promoter was characterized and found 67 base pairs upstream from the major transcription start site. The 56-base pair minimal promoter lacked TATAAA and GC boxes but did contain a sequence GGAAGTG conserved in both the human and porcine gene that could potentially bind an adenovirus E4TF1 transcription factor. In cells stably transfected with G alpha i-2 or G alpha i-3 gene 5'-flanking sequences fused to firefly luciferase cDNA reporter, temporal 10-15-fold transcriptional activation of both genes occurred before cellular polarization. Utilizing mobility shift assays which compared nuclear extracts from cells before and after cell polarization, a motif in the 5' region of the gene promoter GTACTTCCGCT was identified that bound an induced nuclear protein complex during transcriptional activation. In polarized cells complemented with the human glucocorticoid receptor, dexamethasone decreased G alpha i-2 but increased G alpha i-3 basal transcription and mRNA content 3-fold. These studies demonstrate that both G alpha i genes are dynamically regulated in LLC-PK1 cells by both growth, differentiation, and hormone signals.